Any topic (writers choice)

Writing Techniques

Paragraph Construction

Define a paragraph?

A paragraph is a subdivision of a composition writing that comprises of one or more sentences. It concentrates in one major point. On the other hand, it remits the words of a single speaker moreover it starts on a new indented line. (Dorahy, Page, 11-27)

What is the Purpose of a paragraph?

The actual purpose of coming up with a paragraph is to express the thoughts of the speaker on a particular point in a very clear manner that is unique, complicated and specific to the paragraph for easy tracing of main points. Basically, in the words, there should be no mixing of ideas or thoughts in paragraphs, this is to say, any new idea should be addressed in a new paragraph. Writers will normally introduce new paragraphs when addressing a different and a new idea.

Basic Paragraph Structure: How to Layout a Paragraph

On incidences of non-fiction writing, body paragraph is usually any paragraph that emerges between the introductory part and conclusion. A perfect body paragraph consists of the following; (Sparks, Page, 24-38)



Topic Sentence

What is a Topic Sentence?

A topic sentence is that sentence that comes first in a body paragraph. Mainly, a topic sentence is the introductory of the topic of the paragraph. A perfect topic sentence is well detailed to allow for explication. On the other hand it should be narrow enough not to require an adjusted or long paragraph.

Supporting Sentences

What is a supporting sentence?

Supporting sentences of a paragraph are those sentences that come in between the topic sentences and concluding sentences. Mainly, the supporting sentences give support to the topic sentence. To expand they give an explanation as well as elaborate the point of the paragraph.

Concluding Sentence

What is a concluding sentence?

A concluding sentence is that sentence that comes last in the paragraph. Mainly, a concluding paragraph should succinctly terminate or end the paragraph.

Other Features of Paragraphs

A perfect paragraph comprises of elements such as

Unity, Coherence

Ideas in a paragraph basically should be aligned to logically fit together. In a paragraph, ideas should be aligned to flow from one idea to the next. Alongside that, a paragraph should be arranged in a manner that it builds appropriately. This could be done by focusing on sequence of ideas or events. The use of transitions should apply from one sentence to the next that intersect ideas and concepts.

Adequate Development

For a paragraph to be adequate or sufficient, it should be well developed. The user or the reader shouldn’t be left in need of more information. The paragraph should be comprehensive enough to support its topic sentence through typical evidences.


Perfect paragraphs contain transitions in between preceding and proceeding paragraphs. The transitions are both verbal and logical. One paragraph should be organized in a manner that it flows to the next.

How long is a Paragraph?

There is no particular set length to a paragraph. Some of the paragraphs are even one sentence in length. A short paragraph of one sentence in length is to be left to the expert writers or purposely for a certain style of writing. Single- sentence paragraphs are very rare in research papers as well as academic journals. Paragraphs should be tall enough to express in detail a given idea.

Summary: What are Paragraphs?

In summary, a paragraph is generally a group of sentence where a single topic is developed, in prose, it is a unit of writing used in non-fiction and fictional prose as well as part of writing that addresses a particular topic.

What is an Essay?

An Essay is best defined as a piece of writing, mainly a writers’ personal point of view on a particular topic. (Rollins, Page, 40-53)



Parts of an Essay

An academic essay basically has got three parts;


An introduction is for the purposes of giving the reader a clue or idea of what they are expecting to learn in a while and tables an argument in form of a thesis statement.


A body or rather middle section proclaims evidence for the approval and persuasion of the reader to admit the writer’s focused point of view of subject matter.


A conclusion is a part of an essay that summarizes the whole content and context. Additionally, conclusion also summarizes the general findings of an essay.

What is a Thesis Statement?

A thesis statement is that sentence that displays the targeted, focused or the main idea of writing any form of assignment. The thesis statement assists in controlling the ideas and thoughts within the paper. It is not just a topic. It mostly reflects a judgment, decision or opinion that the writer has communicated about a personal experience or reading an article.

Tips for writing Thesis statement

Know the topic

The topic is to be well understood and learned about. It is a nightmare to write a thesis statement on a topic that you have no idea about. (Null, Page, 29-39)




Limit your topic

Depending on your knowledge and the length of the required paper, it is significant that you limit your paper to a particular area. This is wise since a wider scope will make you write long papers.


If starting your paper is a nightmare, not down all the information that rings in your mind about your topic. Separate your ideas into categories, take the themes that you can identify and use them to compose a precise thesis statement.


The Thesis statement should come out clearly in the body to make the reader be on the topic and capture the main theme being addressed in the paper.


The thesis statement should be part of the conclusion to generalize everything that has been addressed in the paper. This actually portrays that the writer understood the topic and actually adhered to the skills of writing. What makes the beginning makes the part of the end, and that is the thesis statement.

Patterns of Essay development


A narration communicates a story by displaying events in an organized, planned and logical sequence. Narration displays events mostly in sequence to prove a thought, an idea or a point. (Straus, Page, 37-51)




Description can best fit a definition of perception. Description mainly is to introduce your view and thoughts of the world to your readers.

Subjective description

A subjective description should convey both factual records of sights and sound a s well as their critical meaning, significance.

Objective description

On objective description, the target and focus is on the object and not much on personal reaction


Argumentation basically is a reasoned typical and logical manner of convincing and winning trust of the audience of the soundness of the position, trust, belief or a conclusion. Analyze your audience.

Comma usage rules

  • Rule 1; States that comma should be used to separate items written in series.
  • Rule 2; States that comma should be used to separate two or more adjectives.
  • Rule 3; States that comma should be used to set off direct addresses.
  • Rule 4; States that comma should be used to set off introductory words as well as expressions which interrupt the form or format of the sentence.
  • Rule 5; States that comma should be used to enclose the separate addresses and items.
  • Rule 6; States that comma should be used before BUT, NOR, OR, AND in compound sentences.
  • Rule 7; States that comma should be used to enclose and set off a positive phrase.
  • Rule 8; States that comma should be used to enclose and set off non-essential clauses or phrases.
  • Rule 9; States that comma should be used after more than one phrase at the start of a sentence or even after an introductory clause.
  • Rule 10; States that comma should be used after the finishing expression and after salutation in a friendly letter.

Semi colon usage rules

  • Rule 1; States that semicolon should be used between the independent clauses that link or are closely attached or related in the theme.
  • Rule 2; States that semicolon should be used before conjunctive adverbs as well as before transitional phrases which join independent clauses. (Kirzner, Page, 91-104)
  • Rule 3; States that semicolon should be used to for clarity purposes. Alongside that, it states semicolon should be used between items containing internal punctuation.

Application of the rules of comma and semicolon in sentences

Applied and used in Independent clauses, Conjunctions, dependent clauses and transitional phrases to bring out clear meanings of issues being addressed in the sentence with a lot of relief preventing long sentences. (Ehrenhaft, Page, 65-72)

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