Any topic (writers choice)

1-Select one of the following, define it in your own words, and explain how an organization can make it a competitive advantage: Social Responsibility or Ethics.

Social responsibility refers to an ethical framework suggesting that entities have an obligation to operate or act for the benefit of society as a whole. It refers to a duty each person has to carry out to ensure there is a balance between the economy and the ecosystems. Organization can make social responsibility a competitive advantage by contributing to the community as well as ensuring high quality of life. Social responsibility helps in building organizational level social capital which results in competitive advantage. An organization that takes care of the welfare of the society is preferred over the one that does not (Phillips & Gully, 2013).

2-Identify and explain 4 of the steps to Leading Change.

The steps to Leading Change include:

  1. Planning and modeling the way step: it involves determination of objectives, carrying out of research and using of resources in coming up with viable alternatives, avoiding negative actions and anticipating problems (Phillips & Gully, 2013).
  2. Communication: this step involves informing others of the new vision and strategies. It involves teaching new behaviors to others and leading by example (Phillips & Gully, 2013).
  3. Managing change and involving others: this step involves empowering others to act on the vision by removing obstacles to change as well as acquiring employees who can implement the vision (Phillips & Gully, 2013).
  4. Providing support or resources and instituting change: this involves the creation of connections between corporate successes and new behaviors as well as coming up with channels that ensure development and succession of leadership (Phillips & Gully, 2013).

3- Identify and explain three things necessary for Diversity to be a competitive advantage for an organization. How does Diversity relate to effective teams? When is conflict good or healthy?

The three things necessary for Diversity to be a competitive advantage are understanding cultural differences, appreciating cultural differences, and inclusion. Understanding cultural differences means being aware of differences in cultures and appreciating cultural differences means recognizing the value of different cultures while inclusion refers to an environment where equity of opportunity exists for every employee to experience individual success and contribute to the success of the organization (Phillips & Gully, 2013). Understanding and appreciating cultural differences helps in avoiding causing offense. It fosters effective internal communication which is vital for the success of the organization. Inclusion helps in maintaining a harmonious and professional environment in the workplace which results in innovative processes as it takes ideas from many employees (Phillips & Gully, 2013). Also, understanding, appreciating cultural differences and inclusion fosters rapid implementation which creates competitive advantage as there is effective collaboration, cooperation, and information and knowledge sharing (Phillips & Gully, 2013).
4-Explain each of the following: business model, infrastructure, processes and human resources. Provide an example that demonstrates how two of these are related to each other.

A business model refers to a conceptual representation of an organization’s core products and services. It consists of interlocking elements such as customer value proposition; profit formula, key resources and key processes that when taken together helps in creating and delivering value (Phillips & Gully, 2013).  It is a conceptual structure that supports the business’ viability including its goals, purpose as well as the ongoing plans to achieve them (Phillips & Gully, 2013). Infrastructure refers to organizational facilities and structures needed for operation. They are key assets such as products, equipment, brand, technology, facilities and channels used in delivering value proposition to the company’s targeted customer. Processes refer to procedures and policies that a company uses in executing its operations. Processes are managerial and operational procedures allowing the company to deliver value in such a way that they are able to successfully repeat and increase in scale (Phillips & Gully, 2013). Human resources are people used in delivering the value proposition to the company’s targeted customers and they heavily influence the company’s cost structure. They are regarded as a significant asset because they are the personnel of a business responsible for all of its operations. Since they are used in executing the business model, human resources relate to infrastructure.  For instance, the organizational facilities determines the types of personnel that the business hires to operate them hence human resources are related to business model in that they provide the competencies required at each level to execute the infrastructure (Phillips & Gully, 2013).

5-Explain four ways Contemporary Management differs from Traditional Management?

Traditional management control and limit individuals as it enforce rules and regulations while contemporary management engaged the hearts and minds of workers. Contemporary management finds a shared vision and values to inspire commitment while traditional management design a top-down hierarchy. Thirdly, traditional management seeks stability and efficiency while contemporary management leads change by building trust. Finally, contemporary management harness creativity and share power and information while traditional management achieve bottom line results as it is interested in product profitability (Phillips & Gully, 2013).

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