# Any topic (Writer’s choice)

Mathematics Statistics

- Create a data table

ASSAULT IN NYC PRECINCT 2011

Precinct | 75^{th} (Bklyn) |
62^{nd} (Bklyn) |
10^{th} (Manhattan) |
19^{th} (Manhattan) |
43^{rd} (Bronx) |
50^{th} (Bronx) |
110^{th} (Queens) |
120^{th} (Staten Is.) |

Assaults recorded | 880 | 162 | 94 | 108 | 542 | 115 | 269 | 386 |

- Create a bar graph.

- Answer the following questions about the bar graph.

- What is the graph showing?

**The graphs shows the cases of assault reported in 8 precincts of the Ney York City in 2011. **

- Who would be interested in the data shown in your graph?

**This data would be useful for the lawmakers and the police departments to identify the areas that require enhanced security attention**.

- What values are used in the x-axis (horizontal) of your graph?

**The x-axis represents the independent variable, (precinct). **

- What values are used in the y-axis (vertical) of your graph?

**The y-axis represents the dependent variable, (cases of assault)**

- Which municipality/precinct has the highest amount of the crime you selected?

**From the data 75 ^{th} (Bklyn) showed the highest amount of assault cases (880 cases). **

- Which municipality/precinct has the lowest amount of the crime you selected?

**10 ^{th} (Manhattan) had the lowest assault cases (94 cases)**

- What is the difference between the highest amount and the lowest amount of the crime you selected?

**The difference is 880 minus 94. This gives us 786 cases. **

- Pie Chart for the same data.

- Look at the two graphs you created.
- Which do you think is easier to understand? Why?

**The bar graph would be easier to understand. This is because the size of the bar and the extent to which the reach along the y-axis can be more easily interpreted than the percentages used in the pie-graph. **

- Which do you prefer? Why?

**For this kind of data, I would prefer the bar graph because it is easier to interpret the data. **

** **

PART 2 – Statistical Measures

Select a **different type** of crime statistic (murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, or larceny) and use the data from **all 15 municipalities in New Jersey** or **all 10 precincts in New York to answer the following:**

- Find the mean for the set of data.

**Data selected: Rape Cases in NYC Precincts **

**Mean = total cases reported/number of precincts**

** = (54+11+13+15+37+22+21+9+42+1)/ 10**

** = 225/10**

** =22.5 cases (approx. 23 cases)**

- Find the median for the set of data.

**Median of the data = value occurring at the middle when the data is arranged highest to lowest or lowest to highest. **

**Arranging the values; 54, 42,37,22,21, 15,13,11,9,1.**

**The median value is the value between the 5 ^{th} and the 6^{th} value in this list. This means the value between 15 and 21 (their average)= (15+21)/2 **

** MEDIAN = 36/2= 18. **

- Find the mode for the set of data, if any. If there is no mode, please explain why.

**The mode refers to the value that appears the most frequent. **

**In this case, the data set has no mode. **

**This is because all the values appear only once in the data set. **

- Which one is the best statistical indicator among the mean, median, and the mode when analyzing a set of data? Give one real-life example to support your point of view.

**Of the three, the mode would have been the most appropriate statistical indicator. This is because it would have shown the most frequent outcome. **

**The mean and median are often affected by the dispersion of the values. For example in a class of seven students, if four students have 98, 80, 88, and 78 while the rest of the students have 09, 17 and 22; the mean score would be calculated as 392/7 which is equal to 56 marks. This value however erroneously represents the data set because all the students were outliers (too far from the mean) on both sides. The median of the data will be given as 78, which is also erroneous. However, the mode may be obtained by grouping the scores as below 50 and above 50. This way, one would see that the majority of the students were in the ‘above 50’ group. **

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