Theoretical approaches to international security

International security is a major global concern that entails unification of measures by various states and international organizations among other bodies in ensuring that peace and mutual existence prevail (Slaughter, 7). The measures that are used include military actions and diplomatic agreements such as the signing of treaties. International security and the security of a particular country work together because international security is the one that represents the national security of a particular country in the global platform. International security plays a significant role in the international relations. For a long time security has been viewed as an area that solely deal with the peace. However, today it covers various issues in the world that impacts the survival of people.
Constructivism versus Realism
One of the dominant theories in the international security is the realism. This theory believes that practice defines the internal norms that guide the territorial peace. It further argues that territoriality, security, enemy and threats are created by the actions of the agents. In this case, constructivists posit that reality has to prevail and must have its basis grounded on observation. The theory has it that the nations define their identity based on the relationship they have with other states such that if the relationship is poor then the peace cannot prevail between such countries (Slaughter, 6). However, the argument contrast that of realism as it believes that the structure is brought into the social relations of mutual knowledge and connections more than materialistic abilities. Another area where c constructivism and realism differs is on security, self- help- and anarchy. According to the activists, the above are the notion of institutions that are more of a set of identity and interests than the basis of the norms and formal rules (Hopf, 175). The theory further states that the ideas of the realism are cognitive ideas that do not exist except for the ideas of the actors.
Constructivism, unlike realism, is not a theory that is political in nature; instead it is social theory that is relevant to the international politics. Realism tries to explain the international relation in a realistic way and as thing happens in the real world. The explanation brought forth by the theory by the realism theory is not based on the ideas rather what happens in the real world. In the case of constructivism and other theories, ideas are more imperative than the events that go on in the real world because they play a major role in shaping the realities in the world security. Realism advocates that security should be the priority for any state, and it is within the mandates of the state to provide this security to its citizen. On the other hand, constructivism posits that the security of the nation can be provided as a result of common interest among the independent nations (Hopf, 169). Constructivism attempts to reconcile the differences in approaches to the idea of reality underlined by the realists that the security is compromised by the events that goes on in the real world. According to constructivist, every element of security is shaped by the actions of human beings. A proper action should work towards restoring the security status among the states.
Constructivism tries to combine the ways of studying with an attempt to help in fathoming the social relation in a more understandable way so as to bring a better relationship. It includes a concept and propositions that delve into matters of social science. It further explains that international politics cannot describe the changes that go in the international security arena as some theories like realism puts it. It says the theory is not supposed to change, but politics does change. Moreover, Constructivism puts people and their activities at the forefront in analyzing and re- describing the world and the status of its security (Ruland, 32). Constructivism endeavored to adapt the significance of norms and inter-subjective meanings in contingency with the authenticity of a given reality in rationalism. On the foundation of Constructivism, safety gets sense under circumstances that states comprehend from their environment in which they act and form the connotation that they give to disorder. Meanwhile, Constructivism propagates that states are representatives, and they have objectives to achieve in the international system (Ruland, 31). Go-betweens, or in other word states, involve in a new practice to alter their identities and interests.
Realism views anarchy and lack of power to control the reaction of the various states and distinguish their powers in showing their characteristics and the role in which politics plays in restoring the security status. Realism theory differs with the constructivism theory because according to realism theory, politic is a pillar of the international security (Hopf, 165). Furthermore, it provides it that in most cases are politics that plays a major role in destroying security among the states. However, the same way politics can be used to change the status quo. Various powers of the states that are having the problem of security can come together and solve their problems in an amicable way.
Similarly, international organizations that are founded on the ground of politics can be used to resolve the insecurity status. Rationalism is based on the various school of thought one of them being economic liberalism. This school assumes that economic honesty and interdependence among states can help in bringing peace among various states in the world. Notably, the theory states that economic freedom can be more effective in bringing peace than democracy in the international arena. Most countries fight majorly because they want to dominate the economic market, and if this one can be solved then, peace can easily be realized in their boundaries.
Constructivists and realism attempt to bring together the foremost approaches in fathoming the idea of security. They posit that the security like other theoretical phenomena is a social construction and reality that relies on both main conventions of rationalism. Peaceful co-existence is very imperatives not only to the members various states but also to the economic well-being of states in the world.

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