Chapter 0

  1. Why is science mistrusted or misunderstood? Explain.

Science is sometimes controversial since the scientist themselves may vary in opinions and some of the principles are also controversial thus making their principles to be mistrusted and misunderstood.

  1. Differen3atebetweenfactsandtheories

The difference between facts and theories is that facts have been scientifically proven while theories have not been proven.

  1. Explain each of the six reasons why we need science

From the six reasons that talk about the reasons why we need science, we can come to a consensus that the general reason why we need science is because science is basic in life.

  1. Explain the two things that‘ science ’is


Science is all about experiment and making inferences. Experiments help very much in evaluating and confirming hypothesis.

  1. Differentiate between scientific beliefs and non-scientific beliefs

Scientific beliefs are beliefs that can undertake scientific experiments to be proven while the nonscientific beliefs are those that do not require science to prove like the theological beliefs.

  1. Explain, using thegraphpresented,howreligiosityand science literacy relates to belief in evolution, climate change, and vaccination

From the graph, we can deduce that in as much as pragmatic aspects like vaccination, climatic change and evolution are scientific; religiosity still has influence in them. We can say that religion determines the acceptability of these aspects in our midst.

  1. Give an example, other than those presented, of where science is controversial

Science is also controversial when it comes to genetically modified organisms. It’s the science that advocates acceptability of these organisms, while when it comes to the discipline of health which is also part of science; it rejects consumption of these organisms.

Chapter 1


  1. Why is it important that science have general principles

The general principles act as general guidelines and frameworks that guide scientist in ethically conducting their activities.

  1. Explain the relationship between the Wellsprings of Common Sense, Principles of Science, and Principles of Rationality

The wellspring of commonsense is always the origin of hypotheses that are later evaluated and tested using the general principles of science. Moreover, the principles of rationality helps in making inferences about the tests conducted.

  1. Explain the basis for general philosophical objections to scientific method

The basis of philosophical objection of the scientific method is that the scientific methods are because some of these scientific methods lack the philosophical rationality.

  1. Is the reason to be concerned with the ability of humans to use their senses to understand the world? Explain arguments for and against this.

All human beings have their common senses that they can effectively use in making decisions regarding their world and to predict and evaluate the best out of themselves.

On the other hand, when things are left on common sense alone, then there would be lots of confusion in the world since what is a common sense to a person is not a common sense to other people.

  1. Explain the two components of the principle of parsimony; how is the author of our textbook connected with parsimony?

There is the principle of dualism and materialism in parsimony.



Chapter 2


  1. What are science’s four bold claims?


Experiment is the basis of science

Science claims that everything can be put into a test

Science may begin with hypothesis

Scientific conclusions depend on the experiments carried out

  1. What is ‘rationality’?

Rationality means having the ability to come up with inferences that not biased in anyway and you use your cognitive ability.


  1. What are the three elements/aspects of objectivity?

The elements are: fairness, factuality, and neutrality

  1. Define the Correspondence Theory of Truth

This statement means that falsity or rather the truth of a statement is always left to be the determination of by how that particular statement links to the entire world.


  1. Explain the difference between realism and constructivism

While realism looks and takes the order of the world as anarchy, constructivism on the other hand perceives the world as dependent on the way the nation states perceive each other.


  1. Explain the two links between common sense and science that are essential

Common sense is very essential in science since it helps to fathom the basic scientific inferences



Chapter 3


  1. Explain Aristotle’s contribution to scientific method, both the things he was correct about and those that he was not

The inductive and the deductive reasoning that is currently encouraged in the scientific method had its origin from Aristotle

  1. Briefly outline what Logical Positivism/Empiricism was and how it contributed to a falling out between science and other liberal arts

Logical positivism agitated for legitimization of philosophical discourse. It made science to seem more pragmatic than other ar.

  1. List three contribution to science of Roger Bacon

He studied the science behind bending of light.

Describe the whole process that can be followed for one to make gunpowder

Proposed the use of flying machines


  1. What advances in scientific method have been made by more recent scholars?

Recent scholars have many advances in the field of astronomy and genetics. They have developed new crops.









  1. Explain the four woes of science

It is difficult for science to prove the truthfulness of any theory.

The second woe is that observations in science are always laden with theory.

The third is that successive paradigms are incommensurable.

Depends heavily on what scientist say

  1. What is a paradigm?

It is a pattern of thoughts and concepts in the field of science and epistemology.


  1. What does it mean that observations are theory-laden, and why is this bad?


This means that the observations that people make are always inclined on the theories that people had previously heard. This is bad since it will lead to biased conclusions.



  1. Explain why the argument for incommensurable paradigms can be dismissed

This is because in empirical analysis, one can use information from one hypothesis to develop another hypothesis and make the correct inference.

  1. Why do some scientists speak of Karl Popper as a positive influence on science?

Because of the works of Karl Popper in science



  1. Explain the internal auditing system in science

Internal auditing deals with auditing that happen within a particular discipline in science.

  1. Explain the rules of engagement proposed for future external auditing of science

External auditing will allow for more transparency and no bias in dealing with scientific methods.

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