Scholarly Writing Analysis ( Day 3 )

University of Phoenix Material


Scholarly Writing Analysis: Constructing New Meaning from Multiple Sources




Instructions:  Report your analysis findings in the table below.


  Payne &Gainey Tsui
Explicit Features Description in My Own Words Examples from the Text

(direct quotes & page numbers)

Description in My Own Words Examples from the Text

(direct quotes & page numbers)


·   How is the article organized?

·   What are the main components of the article?



The article is organized in a professional format in which an abstract that precedes the main content of the article explains all about the content of the article before the introduction.

The article has an abstract that summarizes the content of the article, a brief introduction of the issue in discussion and the background context, the main body and a conclusion.


The first page of the article (page 52) has a direct abstract that explains what the article is about. The abstract is elaborate and comprehensive.


The introduction part, (columns 1 and 2, page 52) introduces the topic and its background and also explain the structure of the article and the content to expect. “In this article we will discuss some common issues…” (Page 52, column 2).

The article is a professional paper targeting an educated and professional audience in the field of education. Although there is no abstract, the introductory section elaborates what the article is about.

The article is a research report that seeks to present the findings of a qualitative review. The paper has an introduction, a research methods, data collection and analysis, findings, discussion and conclusion sections. These demonstrates that the article is a complete research.

The introduction covers the first few pages of the article and is then followed by a research methods section (page 742). This section covers data collection methods, case study and data analysis.

The article takes up the general structure of an academic research.


·   Word choice

·   Tone(formal, informal, academic, colloquial, or a combination)




The article has selected words that are simple to understand and very elaborate. This makes the article easy to understand and relate for anyone with a basic understanding of English language. The tone is however quite formal






No vocabularies have been used by the authors. Simple sentences that are easily understood have comprised the whole article. For example; “A great deal of research exist to support each of these controversial issues (page 55). This is a simple sentence with very simple word choice.

The tone is formal. In the abstract section, the author seems to communicate to a formal audience introducing the article as if from an omnipresent perspective.

The article uses professional language and format that cannot be understood by someone out of the educational scope of this article.

The author chooses to use an academic tone in presenting the research and its findings.

The word choice is academic and targeting a specific academic level. The topic itself, is; ‘Fostering Critical Thinking Through Effective Pedagogy’. The topic may be clear only to people in the targeted audience.( pg 740)
Evidence of Bias

·   Consider types of authority/evidence, privileged/omitted voices, types of logic used, author’s situatedness, and so forth


The controversial topics that have been selected by the authors are all in relation to social sciences such as criminology and law. This is an example of authority bias in which the authors are an authority in one field and have evidence relating to that field. They then ignore other topics that cols still be of interest.

The authors have presented their evidence from their social sciences situation and have used the logics related to the field.


Example of authority bias. Whereas in table 1 page 53, the authors identify controversial topics in other fields, their discussion is based on only four from one field rather than selecting across the fields. The author uses inductive academic logic that does not recognizes other schools of thoughts apart from that to which the author relates. In addition, the article has explored the evidence from only four relative sources. This makes the article rather biased and incapable of bringing out strong evidence as expressed by the author. The evidence bias makes the findings of the research rather unreliable. The author already sets the minds of the reader towards what to expect from the research. The topic ‘Fostering Critical Thinking Through Effective Pedagogy’ does not depict any need for further research as the author already sets the expected results straight.

Further, only four institutional case studies have been explored (page 743) which may not have been enough to come up with the findings expressed by the author.


Implicit Meanings Payne &Gainey Tsui
Summarize the implicit meanings you can infer from your analysis.

·   Include any contradictions you can find in ideas, logic, tone, structure, and so forth.

The article has been prepared to enlighten educators and educational facilitators on the best way to encourage and facilitate healthy discussion of the controversial topics. The article however relates to only the controversial discussions in social science and not in other fields. However, the guideline provided to the immediate audience of the authors can still be useful in other fields. Encouraging critical thinking as the main topic in the article has not been adequately explored in the introduction as the authors have delved directly into the controversial issues and the challenges the teachers face.







There is need to foster critical thinking among students in higher education institutions. The article explores four case studies that relates to how having an effective pedagogy assist towards this. The article however does not exhaust the findings from these case studies as the author seems to be avoiding all information that could lead to an opposing perspective. The limitations (page 756) also indicate the presence of observation bias in most of the case studies selected. The author uses inductive logic to ensure that a predetermined understanding of the case studies is achieved rather than allowing the readers to deduce evidence from the analysis of the cases studies. However, the academic and formal tone is quite effective as used by the author.










Instructions:  Write a one- to two-paragraph evaluation of the authors’ claims using a chosen set of criteria. Be sure to state your conclusion(s) based on your evaluation.


Payne &Gainey have explored how educators and teachers can foster effective critical thinking through encouraging discussions in the line of controversial topics. The authors have used this article to inform the educators on the importance of first understanding the learners’ perspectives and abilities to express their own opinions. Although the author base their discussion on the social sciences field, their claims that the teacher must encourage critical thinking among students are valid and very informative.

Tsui conducts a review of case studies on how effective pedagogy can foster critical thinking. The author uses an academic perspective to communicate the findings from these case studies and to present the claims that it is from the efficacy of the ordinary instructional material and elements in education that critical thinking can be fostered in the students. The author formats the article in the form of a research report.







Instructions:  Write a paragraph describing how your individual or group’s situatedness affects your reading of these articles.


The situatedness of a reader determines the interests that one develops towards a topic in an article. When reading these articles with a deep understanding of the concepts and principles of critical thinking, I find most of the information presented valid. There is therefore an initial interest on the topic that develop making the reading exercise rather enjoyable and effective. This also makes the articles understandable as compared to when reading articles of an unfamiliar topic for which one requires to build an interest first.












Instructions:  Write a two- to three-paragraph synthesis of the scholarly discourse represented in these two articles to create new knowledge or perspective about critical thinking in higher education. Consider using abductive reasoning, lateral thinking, or perspective switching to achieve your synthesis.


Controversial topics discussion in schools is one way of fostering critical thinking among students. The teachers however must learn that not all controversial topics can lead to healthy growth in the students. The selected topic for discussion must be selected while considering the age, understanding, entry point and the personality of the students. This allows the discussions to achieve positive outcomes for the students, informing them and also encouraging them to participate. The teachers must also be ready to understand the learners and environmental factors that can impact the development of the critical thinking ability.

Effective pedagogy or teaching methods can also be used to foster critical thinking. Teachers must not be made to perceive that only discussions that directly interests the students can foster critical thinking. The normal and routine exercises in the classroom must also be planned in such a say that besides providing the students with the academic knowledge targeting an exam, they also provide the students with opportunities to exercise critical thinking from their own level.

Critical thinking is important in developing better professionals and also for the benefits of the student’s personal life. It helps the students to become more informed and able to analyze situations in the present and in the future life.












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