Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a rare diseases that presents itself in a chronic brain disorder. It affects an estimated 1% of the global population. The victim exhibit such symptoms as hallucination, struggling with concentration or thinking, motivational deficit and delusion. It is a complex condition that present itself in a way that its cause is not clear. While the symptoms of this condition is evident in the patients’ behavior, the underlying biological process behind it has elicited significant research. In most instances, physicians and researchers have noted its association with brain malfunction and poor neurotransmission that has so far been associated with genetic factors.

While several myths have been associated with Schizophrenia, it can be managed effectively with proper planning and commitment. However, it is imperative that the biological processes associated with its symptoms are clearly defined.  Inheritance of specific gene variants that are associated with “synaptic pruning” increases the probability of showing Schizophrenia condition. The condition mostly begin to show its symptoms at adolescence stage. This observation is a result of synaptic pruning which involves deteriorating connection between neurotransmitters. The complement component 4 (C4) stands out as a critical player in the overall emergence of Schizophrenia. Since C4 has immune effect on an individual, their number directly affect synaptic pruning which in turn determine brain maturity progress. Active deposition of C3 which is a complement component signals whether pruning of synapses is necessary. In fact the underlying research shows that significant amount of synapses were eliminated in the brain at its prime development phase if an animal had extensive activity of C4.  In other words, people with Schizophrenia tend to have a relative smaller cortex. Since the cortex is the part of the brain that influence cognitive aspects of a person, the victims of schizophrenia exhibit such symptoms as psychosis in their late adolescence stage.

Excessive pruning of the brain result into a debilitating effect that make people to loose ability to judge reality, experience delusion and suffer from paranoia. The C4 gene is an important immune system that detects presence of infectious microbes and to significant level of accuracy has been associated with Schizophrenia. Hallucination is an outstanding symptom of Schizophrenia. Auditory hallucination is the most commonly experienced among the Schizophrenia patients. In such instances, the patient hear voices in different frequencies. Distraction of individuals from concentration on specific tasks is the greatest challenge Schizophrenia patients’ experience. However, there is notable neural and cognitive connection that hallucination shows. The anterior cingulate cortex is an important part of the brain besides inferior frontal gyrus that are set to activation in the process of hallucination. It has also been experimentally noted that basal ganglia and thalamus are sensitive subcortical areas that are activated in a schizophrenia patient. The concept of top-down process of neural basis is responsible for activating Wernicke’s area which in turn manifests itself during hallucination. In other studies, people with limited speech perception cortex’ connectivity with Broca’s area exhibit hallucination in form of auditory-verbal inefficiency. In this case, the patient experience constrained linguistic perception. Autonoetic agnosia is another aspect of hallucination in which an individual has inability to distinguish whether the perceptions or thoughts were generated internally or externally. This observation has been made among the victims of schizophrenia if given a test even with enough time, a friendly environment, and moderated process.

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