Pharmaceutical Drugs

What are Pharmaceutical drugs?

Pharmaceutical drugs are chemical or natural substances for preventing, treating and curing various types of illness and diseases. A large application of pharmaceutical drugs is based in relieving acute pains and assists in controlling physical or mental ailments. Pharmaceutical industry drugs are normally referred to as medicines. Mostly they aid in treating and curing a multitude of diseases such as, diabetes, cancer, cough, HIV, headache, viral fever, nausea, typhoid, tumor, heart attack, hyper tension, depression as well as cold. (Casell, 2012)

Antihistamines

Antihistamines are pharmaceutical drugs that are taken for treating, curing and preventing allergies, fever, itching as well as symptoms of insect bites or rather stings. These Antihistamines are commonly known as histamine antagonists. The pharmaceutical industries manufacture Antihistamines drugs grouped as H1, H2, H3, H4 receptor antagonist and mast cell stabilizers. The Antihistamine drugs are mostly available as generic drugs comprises of; diphenhydramine, Ioratadine, cimetidine, famotidine, cetirizine, ciproxifan and clobenpropit.

How Antihistamines Treat Allergies

When the body gets into contact with the allergy it triggers chemicals referred to as histamines. These histamines cause the tissue in the nose to swell making it stuffy. It causes the nose and eyes to run, alongside that it may impose an itchy rash on the skin known as hives. These medicines limit, reduce as well as block the histamine chemicals causing to stop allergy symptoms. The Antihistamines perform the healing significantly to relieve symptoms of various types of allergies comprising hay fever and food allergies. A number of the medicines are combined with antihistamine to treat specifically treating nasal congestion; a decongestant is combined with antihistamine. The eye drops are responsible for eye allergy treatment as well as itchy watery eyes.

What types of Antihistamines are available?

The Antihistamines exist in different forms, comprising of tablets, liquids, nasal sprays, capsules and eye drops. A small percentage of the drugs are available via prescription. Some can be bought over the counter (OTC) at local pharmacies.

Prescription antihistamines comprise; Azelastine eye drops (Optivar), Azelastine nasal sprays (Astelin, Astepro), Cyproheptadine, Desloratadine (Clarinex), Emedastine eye drops (Emadine). Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril), Levocabastine eye drops (Livostine), Levocabastine oral (Xyzal).

OTC antihistamines comprises; Brompheniramine (Dimetane), Cetirizine (Zyrtec), Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), Clemastine (Tavist), Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), Fexofenadine (Allegra), Loratadine (Alavert, Claratine).

The second-generation antihistamines are basically advised for wide variety of allergic situations since they cause little or less drowsiness. A sedating antihistamine might be particularly significant for children during bedtime especially those diagnosed with allergic symptoms. (Dumit, 2012)

How quickly do antihistamines work?

Antihistamines in form of tablets begin to be effective within 30 minutes after they put into use or taken. The concentration of the effectiveness comes within 1-2 hours after there are used

 

 

Side effects of Antihistamines

The aged Antihistamines happen to cause great side effects, majorly drowsiness. The new Antihistamines tend to cause few side effects; they could be an option to a percentage of population. The main side effects of the antihistamines are as follows, dry mouth, drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, confusion, trouble peeing or rather not able to pee accompanied by restlessness and moodiness in a percentage of children.

Are there different types of Antihistamines?

The Antihistamines have been classified into two groups;

First-generation or sedating antihistamines; this group of antihistamines can cause efficient drowsiness and are likely associated with antimuscarinic side effects named above, they comprise of; chlorphenamine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen and promethazine. These Antihistamine groups of medicines can be used for their sedative effects in the act that oner sleep be disrupted by itching.

Second-generation or non-sedating antihistamines; this group of antihistamines are the newer medicines which have little effect based on drowsiness. Any person taking these medicines and performing skilled task at the same time might be subjected to the sedative effect specifically alcohol. The second-generation antihistamines comprises; acrivastine, cetrizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, loratadine and mizolastine. (Brenner, 2012)

Caution and recommendations

When one take an Antihistamine that is responsible for drowsiness, it is recommended that one perform it before the bed time. It is not healthy when taken day time before taking a drive or using a machinery. Before using an allergy, read the labels effectively. Antihistamines might definitely interact with any other medications that one are using. Have a conversation with oner doctor when one are a patient of an enlarged prostate, high blood pressure, thyroid problems, heart disease, kidney, a bladder obstruction as well as glauma. It is important to go under pregnancy test and consider a nursing state of onerself.  (Schachner, 2011)

Concluding remarks

Although Antihistamines have scary side effects, they still remain the best in treating, preventing and curing allergies. The different forms of Antihistamines are very effective which is healthy in controlling itching. Recommendations should be taken seriously especially to those who are affected with other medication problems since Antihistamines are reactive. Cautions as well should be very essential to be observed, read labels before using Antihistamines.

 

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