• HIV undergoes several stages before it becomes AIDS
  • A person is said to have advanced HIV disease in case CD4 count drops below 200 .
  • However, in case CD4 count drops below 50, the person is said to have:
    • Cytomegalovirus infections
    • Mycobacterium avium
    • Dementia
    • lymphoma

Generally, many deaths occur when CD4 counts is below 50



  • Early warning signs might include swollen glands, night sweats, fever, cough, diarrhea, oral problems, fatigue, repeated vaginal infections, skin rash, and/or weight loss.



  • Viral load titer assay or other tests can be used in diagnosing primary HIV. Methods used in detecting- Viral nucleic acid, Antibody, Virus in culture, Antigen, PCR.
  • First serological test ELISA is profoundly delicate and particular.
  • The HIV antibody test is regularly negative however it becomes positive within 3 to 6 months (95%), in a seroconversion process.
  • Immuno-compromised status by a low T cell count.
  • A HIV infected person is often at risk for opportunistic infections only once the CD4 count drops below 500.




Other screening tests

Agglutination tests utilizing gelatin particles, latex particles or micro beads are covered with HIV antigen and which agglutinates within the sight of antibody.

Dot-Blot Testing uses paper or nitrocellulose that is impregnated with antigen, patient serum is separated through, and anti-body is included with enzyme label, color change is positive.

A quick, practical and may turn into a contrasting option to standard ELISA and Western blot testing.

CDC criteria usually need 2 groups of p24, gp41 or gp120/160.



Westren blot

  • Gold Standard is the most popular confirmatory test and it:
    • The purest quality HIV antigen is the most basic reagent of test.
    • Uses a lysate made from the HIV virus.
    • Although antibodies to gp31, gp41, gp 120, and gp160 appear later, they are often present throughout all stages of the disease.


  • Interpretation of results.
    • No bands, negative.
    • It is a requirement that a minimum of 3 bands be present for it to be interpreted as positive: p24, p31, gp41 or gp120/160.



  • AIDS cannot be cured but can be prevented
  • Firstly, CMP,CBC, UA,STD testing may be ordered. Other tests for infections like TB, hepatitis, or  An HLA-B*5701 test, Coreceptor tropism assay.
  • HIV is dealt with utilizing a mix of solutions called antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV medications are assembled into six medication classes as indicated by how they fight HIV. The six medication classes are:
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
  • Fusion inhibitors
  • CCR5 antagonists (CCR5s) (also called entry inhibitors)
  • Protease inhibitors (PIs)
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)


The only 100 percent effective way of preventing the transmission of HIV is through abstinence from all HIV related risky behaviors (for instance, sharing of needles, sexual intercourse, tattooing  or body piercing using non sterile needles, etc). it is universally required that all body fluids be treated as if they are infectious. Safer Sex includes sexual exercises that cutoff/diminish the trading of conceivably contaminated body liquids. Barrier Methods involves the use of condoms, latex gloves. Other methods include Spermicides and avoidance of Alcohol/medication. Mental, family arranging, monetary, and social directing are imperative.

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