Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Critical analysis of Guns, Germs & Steel explores the history of racial and intercontinental development variations. It emphasizes the role of domestication of plants and animals to the emergence of technology and more exposure in the Eurasia.

Chapter 10 explores the rapid animal domestication and plant-production in the East and West parts of  what is commonly referred to as fertile crescent relative to the lower rate observed to the South and North. The overriding argument of Jared diamond on this chapter is that food production was more prevalent along the latitudes. In other words, the orientation of axes to the horizontal influenced enhanced crop production, livestock rearing, invention of wheels, writing techniques among others. The axis orientation geographically explains the rapid development in Eurasia region with limited socio-economic growth among Africans, Native Americans and aboriginals about 500 years ago.

In chapter 11, Diamond explores the role of epidemic diseases in helping the Eurasian people to concur the world. Considering that Eurasians had domesticated plants and animals earlier, encountered various diseases and developed resistance, other people in other continents like Native Americans were effectively depopulated by the diseases. Germs had equally mutated to fit animal and human body and this helped Eurasia to take charge of the world by managing their population through infectious germs. The germs that Europeans migrated with to America during Columbus voyage killed so many Native Americans leaving the immigrants to establish and gain control over the new land.

Chapter 13 explains the emergence of inventions and vicious circle that made Eurasia gain more technological head start. According to Diamond, necessity is the mother of inventions. In fact, people adopt inventions to help them experience better life. Considering the early civilization in Eurasia, they have accumulated technological advancement that consistently put them superior to other races and continents. In fact the chapter attests to the aspect of steel in modernization of Eurasia.


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