Emergency Management Theory

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In the world, disasters occur in several forms, caused by nature or human activity. It is not easy to determine the exact time when one will occur since they are unpredictable hence occur in any place at any time. Unlike disasters that occur because of man’s activities such as fires, natural disasters are the least predictable since there is nothing much any human being can do to prevent them from occurring. However, any person, community or nation can put measures into place to reduce the impact of these disasters. Emergency management is the process of preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from disasters such as hurricanes or floods. It is an important process since it ensures that there is minimal loss of life and property in the event that a disaster occurs and that human suffering is highly minimized. For this reason, it is important for every member of the society to undergo some emergency management training since it is a basic skill required for survival. This study intends to look into the existing information that the nation uses and give recommendations on what can be done to improve it since natural calamities have been on an increasing trend since the 1990s because of climatic change in the world (Murphy, 2014).


All the definitions given in this section have been taken from the online version of the Cambridge English Dictionary.

Fact- something known to have happened or to exist, especially for which proof exists, or about which there is information.Facts refer to the existing scientific knowledge about catastrophes such as earthquakes, floods, droughts, hurricanes, and tsunamis (National Academies, 2002). Additionally, they include studies about the prevalence of these events in different parts of the world, their impact and how they can be prevented. This information is normally collected by experts who use it in emergence preparedness (Ontario Ministry of Health, 2008). There are organizations in the world such as the World Bank that collect information about climatic change since it is the main cause for increased catastrophes in the world today. Facts form the base on which the emergence theory is formulated.

Thesis- the main opinion, main idea or theory of a person, group, piece of writing, or speech.it is the proposition that an individual develops and uses to maintain an argument. Not relevant in emergency management.

Opinion- the thought or belief about something or someone. Not relevant in disaster management.

Expert opinion-the judgment made by an expert. The guidelines given by experts about the probability of occurrence of disasters, the severity of best methods of responding to disasters. Therefore expert opinion is used to develop long term plans, oversee their implementation and to determine the level of funding required. Governments rely on the experts in formulation of national policies in relation to climate change and natural disaster management. Again, in the education process, experts give advice on the channels to use to educate the public on how to respond to catastrophes. On the same note, it is their role to forewarn of looming disasters because of change in weather patterns.

Experiment-a test done in order to discover if something works or is true.in emergency management, experiments are carried out through drills to determine the level of preparedness  of the people in a given region.as such people are taught on the best practices to adopt. This is also a way of testing whether the recommendations given by experts are realistic and whether there are gaps in these recommendations. Also drills are also used to teach the rescue teams and medical personnel the skills needed to deal with disasters. Therefore, experiments are an important element of disaster management (Murphy, 2014).

Subjective theories are influenced by or based on personal beliefs or feelings rather than based on facts Objective theories are based on real facts and not influenced by personal feelings or belief (Cambridge English Dictionary).The emergence management theory is subjective in nature. For this reason, it is applicable in any part of the world.

Theory- a formal statement of rules on which a subject of study is based or ideas that are suggested to explain a fact of event, more generally, an opinion or explanation. The emergency management theory refers to the developed framework that can be used in prevention of disasters in a given region of the world. It comprises four main elements namely: Prevention, Preparation, Response and Recovery (Kathleen, 2015). The first step, prevention, involves the identification of the kind of disasters that are likely to occur in a certain region using the facts available and then determining what can be done to reduce level of damage incurred in case such events take place. Next, the region in question prepares by teaching its citizens how to act when a disaster takes place. A disaster plan is developed and put in areas that are easily accessible by all people. Hence, in the occurrence of a catastrophe, the decisions made will have been premeditated and are not irrational and uninformed (Grist, 2007). It is also important to practice the execution of the plan through drills so as to identify areas that need to be changed to make the plan as effective as possible. In addition, funds are set aside for use when a catastrophe hits the region.as such the region can now face any disaster that comes it way in the best way possible.

When disasters such as earth quakes occur, the region responds using the procedures that were laid down to rescue people and take them to safety. All the departments involved such as health, police and rescue teams work in perfect coordination with the public to ensure that there is as little loss as possible. The final stage in this theory is recovery which is the implementation of laid down processes to restore the region to its original position. Guidelines of activities such as rebuilding of roads and buildings, removal of waste brought by the catastrophe, and resettlement of people are all given and are implemented at this final stage (Groves, 2013).


Finally, the emergency management theory is an effective plan that is based on evidence. However, its adoption in many countries is still at a low rate. Such countries suffers great loses when they are faced by natural disasters. As such, implementation of this plan in a customized way in each country will help reduce human  suffering since disasters are on an upward trend in the world today.it is a tool that can be used to save numerous lives especially in third world countries that are ill prepared for disasters in most cases.


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