Literature review The literature review section is created to explore existing literature evidence related to the topic and what the existing researchers have established about it. First, the section will examine how TV affect the body systems and health causing problems such as obesity and damaging eyes and brain. Next, the section will discuss the negative behaviors related to TV such as violence tendencies, sexuality content, and in particular children’s development. Lastly, the section will explore the best solutions to prevent problems such as monitoring our children’s and blocking the sexual contents and put restrictions. How TV affect the body health Around the world, Children aged between eight and eighteen years are reportedly using media for at least eight hours a day. Out of this time, close to four hours are spent on televisions (Brodie). As a result, the sedentary lifestyle increases their chances of developing obesity, a menace that is currently a major problem in America. Research reports indicate that there is a positive correlation between long hour’s exposure to televisions and obesity (Crespo, 2001) According to Dietz and Gortmaker (1985), a positive relation exists between the time spent on watching televisions and incidences of obesity. The theory was based on three of their research that they conducted on youths who were aged between twelve and seventeen years. During the research, the other possible factors that could have had an impact or contributed towards obesity were all put under significant control. Apart from the obesity problems, the media also does play a part in the development and growth of a child’s body. A new perspective of viewing this is by looking at the impact that media has had on the children’s brain. Although the contents being televised on the stations may not matter as such, the exposure that the children are subjected to over that period will have an impact in shaping the development of their brains. More often than not, it is the images that the children view on televisions that have an impact on brain development. Long hours exposure to televisions during the early stages of childhood have a destructive impact on the concentration levels and control of children when they get to around age seven (Schultheiss, 2004). It, therefore, means that if children spend most of 2 their childhood watching televisions, then the chances are high that controlling such things in the future may become a problem. Television programs are created with a specific audience in mind. The content of the programs is created to (or “intending to”) appealing to a specific audience. Television watching has been associated, through research, with language development problems, eating and sleep disorders and cognitive problems in children. Most available literature suggests that television watching has more detrimental effects for children than the perceived benefits. How TV affects the behavior This is the most important part of our research. Recently we have seen so much issues regarding to the behavior of children’s which can be directly related to television watching. This section divided into three parts the first thing is: – Sexual content There has been a significant problem in the American media. Over the years, the mainstream media has preferred to air more sexual contents than they should. According to the arguments put across by the children’s advocates, there has been an increase in sexual contents aired by televisions from 1976 to 1998. The worse thing about these sexual contents is that they are aired during what could be considered as family hours of watching television, in the evenings. Evidence shows that by the year 1996, most children were exposed to at least eight sexual references within an hour during such family television times. According to the research that was done by Rockwell and his team, it was established that those who got affected were mostly the adolescents. The young teenagers were found to be unable to make the correct moral judgments as a result of the sexual contents that they watched on the televisions (Crespo, 2001). However, there was a significant difference in the behavior of those teenagers whose parents intervened and had discussions with them regarding sexual matters. In addition to the sexual references, the songs that most of the teenagers listen to and the video clips and TV series are completely sexual content, for example, a song Trumpets by Jason DeRulo and I quote his lyrics “Every time that you get undressed, I hear symphonies in my head. I wrote this song just looking at you” (Tarkoff, 2015). Further, one of the best TV series in the world for the last four years, and is translated into more than 14 languages (Game of Thrones) has a lot of sexual content and the most disturbing thing is that these contents are aired on TV without cutting any sexual scene (McGrath, 2016). Aggressive behavior Aggressive behaviors in children and young people have different symptoms and aspects. Television has been known to cause negative behavioral changes such as fear, sexual immorality and violence tendencies. This is because the televised contents portray a world of violence and open sexuality as compared to the real world which is calmer and 3 guided by morals. Scholars attribute, the violent behaviors shown by most of the young people to what they emulate from television content they watch. However, this issue is still controversial, with some researchers arguing that such behavior as violence cannot be induced by external factors, but it depends on hormonal balance (Zimmerman, 2007) According to an article by Arline Kaplan (Kaplan, 2012) ” 2 teenage boys who murdered 12 schoolmates and a teacher and injured 21 others at Columbine High School in Colorado before killing themselves he said, lived in a pathological environment. “Their lives centered around violent video games.” Another example is the behavior pattern that is formed by children who get exposed to violent video games. By the time a child takes part in the video games, they not only become observers of what is going on in the violent video games but they also take part in such violent actions. During such times, what the children witness in the games become reinforced in them so that it becomes easy for the children to grow up being violent people. Another important factor is using games to manipulating the minds of children for example Daesh or what some people call them ISIS, According to Ahmed Mohammed (Mohammed, 2016). “Daesh exploit electronic games, especially the most famous in the world of military combat games, redesigning parts, and modifications included software to add images and sounds that promote Daesh and pass on their agendas and publishes songs that call for violence and terrorism.” What are the best solutions? In this section, we will explore the best solution to the problem of televisions negatively impacting the behavior of the children. From the discussion of literature already explored, televisions have a potential negative impact on the human mentality. This is demonstrated by the impact that the televised content has on the behavior of children and young people. It is clear, therefore, that controlled watching of television is beneficial in that is both educative and entertaining. Television exposes children to a wide pool of knowledge. Some of this information is advantageous while other information can be misleading. Therefore, parents should control the time that their children watch TV. Also, they should check the content their children are watching. Uncontrolled television watching leads to health implications, adaptation of unacceptable behaviors such as violence, sexual immorality, etc. In addition, the government, and its agencies must institute laws to govern the kind of televised content and the best hours to air such contents. These laws, if existing should be reinforced and all television stations and content developers must be put to task to ensure that watching televisions are healthy to the psychosocial and intellectual development of the viewers and their families.

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