Distinguish between the terms emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases

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Emerging infectious diseases are those that are new and have never occurred before or have occurred affecting a limited number of population and which in the past 20 years its incidence increased and even expected to increase in the near future. Emerging infectious diseases are newly identified species evolving from an identified infection spreading to a new population and accounting for 12% of human’s pathogens. Examples include AIDs and Ebola. Re-emerging infectious diseases on the other hand, are those that once occurred and were major problems to a significant population and currently resurfacing examples include: polio and malaria.

Types of endemic diseases from the two areas of the world contributing to the current migration pattern.

The types of endemic diseases from Africa and Asia contributing to the current migration pattern include: from Africa; Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, syphilis, chronic hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, Entamoeba, schistosomiasis, hookworm, ascariasis, trichuriasis and strongyloidiasis. Intestinal detection of B. hominis was as a result of hygienic condition of the environments in Africa. Walking barefoot was another cause for hookworm prevalence. From Asia: Dengue fever, tuberculosis, cutaneous leshmaniasis, Ascariasis and Trichuasis. Dengue fever may have resulted from mosquitoes’ bite.

Types of public health interventions such a group might need in order to address the issues of emerging and re-emerging disease include:

  • Access to healthcare-access to quality preventive care and medical treatment for the immigrants requiring health protection. Access should be improved by providing translations, training to workers, health promotions as well as health literacy.
  • Increasing reception for capacity and care so as to establish a real community based care facility.
  • Strengthening process of health monitoring and employing prevention activities such as provision of vaccines and contraceptives.
  • Provision of health check for communicable and non-communicable disease at point of entry so as to identify immigrants’ health problems on arrival.
  • Hygiene measures improvements and overcrowding prevention in relevant areas such as settlement, reception centers and transit points.
  • Adequate preparation of health system to aid local residents as well as migrants.

 

 

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