Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is defined as a cough that occurs daily with the existence of sputum. The sputum production usually lasts for about 3months, 2 years in a row. Cigarette smoking has been cited as the main cause of chronic bronchitis. Other causes include continual inhalation of bronchial irritants. Diagnosis of the condition is usually performed using physical exams and clinical histories. Other diagnosis measures include pulmonary function tests, x-rays and CT-imaging. The major complications that might arise from chronic bronchitis include, chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease (COPD), shortness of breath and an increased mortality rate.

The treatment for individuals suffering from chronic bronchitis should be prevention from smoking. But in the case of an already advanced case, beta 2 agonists can be used. These drugs function through acting on beta 2 adrenergic receptors. Their mechanism involves smooth muscle relaxation through bronchial passage dilations and muscle vasodilation. The agonists are divided into two groups which are short acting beta agonists (SABA) and long acting beta agonists (LABA). An example of SABA used for treatment of chronic bronchitis is salbutamol (albuterol) which is marketed as Ventolin. The drug functions through opening up medium and large airways in the lungs. The drug usually lasts for 2-6 hours. Examples of LABAs used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis include salbutamol which opens up airways in the lungs and formoterol which is used in prolonging the effects of SABAs. LABAS are mostly used as system controllers.

Beta 2 agonists have an effect on gender since they affect pregnant women. They should not be administered to pregnant women since they act as teratogens that can cause congenital malformations. Research show that SABAs cause more adverse effects than LABAs. These includes delayed mental development and growth retardations in the fetus. Therefore, pregnant women should adhere to SABA safety procedures instituted by their respective medical practitioners. Women with advanced congenital malformations should seek guidance from genetic specialists to reduce the effects of the teratogens.

Individuals suffering from chronic bronchitis should therefore seek care after onset of symptoms to minimize its effects. Addictive smokers should also seek care from professionals to prevent advancement of the condition. There is no known cure to the condition, but with adequate medical attention and appropriate health practices the condition can be managed. Individuals suffering from chronic bronchitis should therefore seek care for other opportunistic conditions such as dyspnea and cyanosis.

 

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