Career Intervention Theory Research Paper

Career Intervention: Holland Theory

A theory is a picture, a description, a representation of what is real but not reality itself. It is a way we can ponder about some part of reality so that we can comprehend it.

Holland’s theory of vocational choice pervades career counseling research and practice. According to John Holland’s theory, most people are one of six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. This analogy gives explicit attention to behavioral style or personality types as the primary influence in career choice development. (Peake, & McDowall, 2012)

Realistic [R]: A practical person prefers concrete duties. He or she likes working alone or with other sensible individuals.

Investigative [I]: A person who is investigative wants to use his or her analytical skills or abstract to figure things out. He or she is a “thinker” who struggles to end tasks and often opts to do so independently.

Artistic [A]: The creative individuals of our society like to create things. They are usually extroverted and imaginative.

Social [S]: A social person prefers socializing with people. He or she tends to be concerned with social issues and wants to help others.

Enterprising [E]: Those who are in a resourceful category, lean toward leadership duties. They are willing to take on challenges and are extroverted. They can be aggressive as well.

Conventional [C]: Someone who is conventional opts for structured tasks and tending to details. He or she is often conservative.

These types are then shown in a hexagon, the idea being that the further separated from each other on the hexagon two categories were the less the types would have in agreement, and the less someone would get a satisfying a career in separated classes.

He argued that people who choose to work in an environment similar to their personality type are more probable to be satisfied and successful. For example, Artistic people are more likely to be fruitful and happy if they choose a job that has an Artistic environment, like opting to be a dance teacher in a dancing school — a surrounding dominated by Artistic type people where creative abilities and expression are highly valued. (Bimrose,2006).

Why Holland Theory for Counselling High School Student in America

This is because students after taking an assessment and discovering their Holland type, they can use occupational information to learn more about careers related to their types. The counselor then can encourage action on the part of the students to increase understanding of occupations they show an interest in. Though career exploration starts in middle school, it will continue into high school and beyond, begin the search in middle school can assist students to begin to think about long-term educational and vocational goals.Hollands theory is appropriate in the sense that it will help students in:

Choosing a College or School

The number of choices for education and training is enormous. The Choices system makes it possible to use various criteria for selecting among these options. If the student needed to explore options in additional states, the number of alternatives would grow exponentially. College level careers are least frequently associated with the Conventional and Realisticcategories, while Investigative and Artistic work are most likely related to college-level employment or the highest level of cognitive ability.

Adjusting to the College or Academic Program

Faculty in IASE disciplines develops specialized academic environments that are shared by the students selecting these majors. The variability in the interaction styles and the effects of the conditions on student behaviors and thinking increased understanding of these environmental characteristics is necessary for educational counseling and student choices about preferred fields of study.

Assessing Academic Performance

Holland discussed the impact of college on students and how varied personality traits and beliefs other than aptitude were associated with success. Holland’s early research showed that much of the output from the college experience was related to what students brought into that experience. He promoted the idea that college selection practices relying heavily on measures of academic potential resulted in much-loss of talent. Academic success is sometimes measured concerning persistence on the part of the student or retention on the part of the institution. It should be noted that while every academic program requires cognitive skills and ability, some programs further emphasize abilities and interests related to the RIASEC. These could include creativity, leadership, community service, etc

Connecting Education to Career and Life

Holland’s RIASEC theory provides a relatively simple, efficient scheme for thinking about people (e.g., personalities, interests, traits, behaviors, attitudes) and their choices (e.g., educational programs, occupations, and leisure activities). Conceptualizing people and options in these six areas can improve personal and career decision making. For example, when students conduct interviews they might structure questions and make observations about the extent to which the various RIASEC codes are preferred in the life of the interviewee.

Selecting an Academic Program or Major

The Choices Planner lists many academic programs or fields of study (majors) for students for the chosen state. Greater Universities may have many undergraduate majors, and this can be overwhelming to students supposed to pick one field. Holland’s RIASEC schema can assist to make the procedure of exploring and choosing options less daunting. This section describes some methods this might happen. First, when students understand the essential elements of RIASEC theory, they are armed with a schema for categorizing a higher amount of academic information.


Theoretical Guidance.

Greater attention to Holland’s theory in efforts to comprehend student success would undoubtedly alleviate our initial concern about specific deficiencies in full-scale theoretical guidance in contemporary efforts. (Kidd, 2006)

Equal Attention to Psychological and Sociological Components.

Holland’s theory places a balanced emphasis on both psychological and sociological considerations in efforts to understand vocational and educational stability, satisfaction, and achievement. This aspect of the method addresses our concern about the imbalance that exists in contemporary efforts where attention to psychological considerations far surpasses attention to the sociological review. As a way of person-environments fit, equal attention is given to the attributes of individuals and to the fundamental nature of their educational and occupational environments in understanding their subsequent levels of educational or vocational success.

Specificity of Incorporated Constructs.

Holland’s theory provides accurate theoretical attention to the attributes of individuals, their environments, and the fit or congruence between people and environments. As discussed in the next section, Holland’s theory assumes that people may be classified regarding their similarity to six personality types.

Psychometrically Sound Measures of Incorporated Constructs.

Holland and his associates have developed psychometrically sound instruments for the measurement of individuals’ personality types and the model similar environments (Holland, 1997). Also, established theory-based procedures have been developed to determine the level of congruence between individuals and their environments.


Holland’s tool was developed in the framework of a predominately white, middle-class viewpoint. Students from poor backgrounds may lack exposure to the activities or surroundings presented in the interest profiles, which are portrayed as a lack of differentiation.

There is also the little consideration for students with intellectual disabilities, who may not have the skills necessary to make decisions concerning assessment choices.

The theory doesn’t consider students with dominant personality traits that are bigger and more prevalent in their lives than others; people could be mixed, not necessarily always falling into one dominant category over another.

In summary, Holland’s contributions to counseling psychology are remarkable not so much because his theory advanced entirely novel ideas but because it built upon the work of others to organize and make interest assessment and career materials user-Friendly.

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