Borderline personality disorder


Borderline Personality disorder is one of the mental disorders that have attracted significant research in the medical field. While limited information has been gathered for its treatment, combined therapeutic and medication interventions holds key to better outcome. This condition is a reality of the society and must be managed through partnership with certified mental physicians and psychologists. Like any other mental health disorder, BPD patients do not show a clear source of their condition.However, intensified medical research in on course to establish sustainable remedial measure.










The debate on the Borderline personality disorder has been raging among psychology scholars. The topic has attracted significant scholarly interest owing to its sensitivity and increasing statistics of victims. Borderline personality disorder is a mental condition characterized by series of unstable moods, uncontrolled behavior, that seem fine to the victim but has significant negative consequences on the individual’s health. Such BPD behaviors lead to impulsive actions and is coupled with a history of unstable relationships. Such emotional imbalances are exhibited in form of uncontrolled anger, extreme depression, and anxiety that may spread over a few days. Most patients of BPD show unique level of other mental health disorders that include; eating disorders, substance abuse, self-destructive activities, and suicidal attempts (Linehan, 1993). Despite frantic efforts of the scholars to get an alternative name for the disorder, little outcome has been noted. Critical evaluation of the condition is important to establish remedial measures as it affect the family members of the victim and the society at large. The high risk of suicide among the patients of BPD necessitates intensive awareness creation, medical research, and health promotion to mitigate its costs to the society.

Signs and symptoms

The condition is more pronounced in unregulated moods. The victims may feel distorted self-image that compels them to engage in unhealthy actions. There is the problem of uncertainty among the people suffering from BPD. The victims experience rapid changes of interests and altered values that manifest themself in diverse abnormal actions. In addition, there are several symptoms associated with this condition.

There is evident attempt by BPD patients to avoid imagined or real abandonment. In most cases, the patient reacts sharply upon perceived possibility of facing physical and emotional rejection from members of the society (Paris, 1993).

The mental instability of the BPD patients is responsible for poor interpersonal relationships with family and friends. In that respect, they display a history of failed relationships that arise from uncontrolled interpersonal and intrapersonal actions ranging from obsessive closeness to extreme disconnection. In essence, the patient tends to portray idealism and sometimes devaluation.

The inconsistency in self of sense is a result of distorted self-image that arises from the BPD condition. Closely associated with this problem is impulse actions and dangerous involvement in such activities as unprotected sex, drug abuse, excessive eating, impulse and unregulated spending, reckless driving, among others (Krawitz & Jackson, 2008). Lacking self-esteem and disoriented mental stability exert an internal will to commit suicide hence the prevalence of several suicidal attempts among the patients.

Chronic Stress, intense anger, internal emptiness and paranoia are other symptoms that are shown by the patient. In fact, the BPD victims always exhibit a trait of total disconnect with oneself and reality.

Literature review exposes some of the triggers to BPD symptoms. Minor incidences of separation that include travels, trips, or impromptu alteration of plan among their loved ones or close friends can trigger a sharp emotional reaction. As in-depth research on this disorder shows, Victims can note anger in the face of a normal person with a neutral emotional expression. Besides, they are able to react to strong words that express negative meaning much faster than people without the condition. However, research also indicates that people with other mental disorders may equally exhibit a similar reaction but do not necessarily qualify as victims of BPD (Linehan,1993). IN that regard, other symptoms must be taken into consideration to make clear distinction. The professional input of a certified mental physician is important to make judgment as to whether anybody expressing such emotional swings is a patient of BPD. Besides, appropriate diagnosis guide the medication and alternative therapies that are important in helping the patient. The seriousness of the condition necessitates concerted management effort to avert the multiple risks in which the patient is exposed (Paris, 1993).

Tests and Diagnosis

Considering the close association between BPD symptoms with other mental disorders, misdiagnosis is highly prevalent. However, in-depth assessment carried out by a qualified psychologist, or certified physician is likely to provide a relatively accurate diagnosis. Oral interview coupled with critical observation are combined to meet specific set standards that justify a conclusion of positive result (Gunderson & Links, 2008). The previous history of the patient may be used to establish if the stated behavior corresponds to BPD. The possibility of co-occurring mental health problems may pose diagnosis accuracy as overlapping symptoms distort the observation.

Risk factors

Mental conditions have always showed unclear cause. Although intense medical research is in progress, little information as to the exact cause of mental disorders has been established. In the case of BPD, it is even more complex. Research findings provide mixed signals that point towards genetic factors, brain structure and functionality, environmental factors, and social conditions (Linehan, 1993).

Genetic background has been closely associated with vulnerability to experience BPD. Chances are that a person is five times likely to develop the condition if a first-degree biological family member had encountered the same. Although there are extraneous factors, the past literature review and scientific inquiry show genetic connection as a risk factor.

Environmental and social factor play a key role in a person’s susceptibility to the disorder. Life experiences that are traumatizing trigger the condition. For instance, people with a past of rape, drug abuse, child abuse, and even childhood rejection constitute the better proportion of the BPD patients’ statistics. Hostile environment such war zones, exposure to unstable and disappointing relationships are also possible trigger to BPD (Linehan, 1993). Despite such possible social factors, some BPD patients do not necessarily associate their condition with traumatic past.

Brain structure and functionality is a trigger to BPD.Nuero-transmission parts of the brain is critical in regulating emotions. If some parts of the brain are affected, uncontrolled impulses interfere with emotional balance which likely manifest itself among the BPD patients. However, even this factor has not been proven as absolute and accurate as people that have experienced the same may not necessarily suffer from the condition. Further research studies are focused on establishing the biological risks associated with BPD. The risky ages is also under scrutiny as most victims are hardly in their adolescence.

Treatment and therapies

Mental disorders have historically presented difficulty to treat and BPD is not exceptional. Emerging breakthrough in medical research has significantly cut down on casualties of the condition. There are viable treatment and therapeutic interventions that have worked. However, patience is important as the existing remedial measures take time to manage the condition to considerably normal level (Wirth-Cauchon, 2001). Besides, family commitment and consistent support to the patient is important. Existing literature indicate that patients that fail to show any recovery progress may likely develop chronic mental challenge with more vulnerability to suicide.

The treatments described below are just some of the options that may be available to a person with BPD. However, the research on treatments is still in very early stages. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these treatments, who may benefit the most, and how best to deliver treatments. Psychotherapy has been an instrumental measure against the condition. Patients can be relieved of several symptoms if they are constantly given moral support. However, it is important to note the modes of psychotherapy. In most cases, one on one with a therapist works but is expensive. Group therapy may work better as patients interact among themselves. Therapy may face such huddles as swinging moods of the patient that destabilizes trust and interaction between the patient and the therapist. Proper bonding is almost impossible but with time some progress is attainable. Psychotherapy takes different forms to exhaust the emotional dimensions of a patient (Linehan,1993). Cognitive behavioral therapy seeks to establish the mental changes and associated beliefs in the patient that is responsible for the inaccurate self-image. This approach helps in addressing suicidal attempts. Dialectical therapy uses the attention concept to instill emotional management approach in an individual. It effectively reduces mood swings and the related unregulated actions. Dialectical approach helps in reconciling the perception of rejection with reality of physical movement of people. Schema-focused therapy combines other therapies to try and reduce the effects of a past trauma that triggered BPD in a person. It focuses on helping the patient to cope with stress and anxiety. Last but not least is the system training for emotional predictability and problem solving (STEPPS) which supplement other therapies to blend with medication and yield better outcome. It has been noted that effects of BPD surpasses the victims and affect the entire family. The cost of therapy is high and constant need for companionship requires sacrifice. Most of the therapies require in-depth understanding of family members on existing obstacles and available strategies that are part of the therapy. In fact, the aspect of family involvement shows positive correlation with better therapy outcome.


Prescriptive drugs for BPD are not clearly established. Existing research findings notes that the benefits of medication are not available. However, the diversity of the symptoms has necessitated physician directive to prescribe some drugs to counter specific symptoms. Such symptoms as depression, anger, stress, anxiety, may be controlled by some drugs as a partial measure but not a total cure (Krawitz & Jackson, 2008). However, in the case of medication, many health professionals may be required to moderate. Another sensitive aspect of medication pertains to the vulnerability to suicide by patients. It is imperative that caregivers keep an eye and scrutinize the drugs such that the patient does not take lethal drugs that can kill.

There have been clinical trials on the cause, prevention, and management of BPD. New ways of treatment that include surgical, administration of drugs are underway. The objectives of the trials are to establish whether medications and proposed therapies work. However, issues such as ethical concerns have led to retarded development of better remedies. In other cases, participants in trial tend not to know that the aim of trials is to establish remedy. Further research is promoted towards a responsive medication procedure. In fat, pharmacological assessment on the condition hold better prospects. Psychotherapeutic intervention must be encouraged to mitigate cases of suicide and other forms of self-harm among patients.


The reality of Borderline personality disorder lives with people. However, family support, among other social factors contributes to the outcome of the patient treatment. Collaboration with physicians is important in addressing key symptoms and helping with therapy to mitigate extreme outcomes such as suicide. Learning to accept people with such conditions is highly encouraged. Emotional management is critical as it constitute the better symptoms of the condition. However, talk therapy is a tried, tested, and proven approach that helps patients to cope.

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